Starting with main fire safety. Fire doors are now a legal requirement in almost all commercial buildings, most accommodation premises – including blocks of flats, sheltered accommodation, housing in multiple occupation etc and even some larger owned houses.
You first need to understand the difference between compartmentation and passive fire protection. Compartmentation is the idea behind passive fire protection. The process of stopping an active fire from spreading further. It is a structural design principal requiring areas of the building to be sealed off from each other by fire resistant materials. So if a fire occurs in one area it cannot or will take a long time to spread to the other area. This is for the purpose of protecting escape routes for occupants of other areas and to hope to prevent the premises from burning down.
A fire door is a door that stops the spread of fire. They are constructed from material designed to resist fire for a certain amount of time rather than a normal door. The most common types are either 30 or 60 minute fire resistance although you can have specialist doors made up where they have four hours of fire resistance.
You will often see fire doors around buildings where they have a blue circle on with white text stating “fire door keep shut” these signs are mandatory and identify doors within a building. Another common indicator is the existence of a door closer which is mandatory on most fire doors.
Any component of a fire door other than the actual door leaf and its frame will fall under the term “fire door hardware” or “fire door furniture” including hinges and edge guards and some pieces of furniture are considered “essential items” these are all mandatory for doors. The most important items are hinges, appropriate signage, and either a lock or an automatic door closer.
Fire doors have components such as furniture and aesthetic components which penetrate the surface of the door – or wrap around the door from one side to the other – must be fire rated. This includes hinges onto the frame such as intumescent seals and strips as well as a door closer fitted at the top.
For example it is no use hanging an FD60 fire door with a standard lock.
When hanging fire doors intumescent materials are often used to swell and enlarge when exposed to heat. This thus seals any gaps in and around a fire door blocking the path of a fire or smoke. Intumescent fire seals are required around the edges of doors although they can be attached to the frame as well.
Strips of intumescent material may be required between frame and hinges as well as the hinge in the door. Intumescent sealant is often used as an expanding foam between the frame and the wall and other gaps to be filled. The intumescent seals around the edges of the doors and frame will often have integrated smoke brush to stop the spread of smoke and these are called cold smoke seals.
You should be aware that smoke has a tendency to spread a lot quicker than fire. It often will not provide enough heat to activate intumescent seals allowing it to flow around the door within its frame. This often can’t be avoided but you should speak to the manufacturer. Fire doors leading to fire escapes often have a policy that they would need cold smoke seals.
These are put in properties to stop the spread of fire within buildings and they are absolutely essential. The whole purpose of fire doors are equipped with fire door closers so that when people pass through them they automatically close.
Fire door retainers are used when there is a free flow of people throughout a building and can hold a door in its position and release the door in case of fire allowing the door to close the door shut. They are an alternative but you should check whether they are acceptable in your area.
There are various different types such as electro magnet fire door holders and acoustically activated fire doors.
There is a third option which is a premium choice and includes free swing door closers. They are battery powered and acoustically triggered as a free swing door closer. The door closer mechanism remains inactive as standard and will only activate on hearing the fire alarm.
Fire doors are an absolute crucial defence against the spread of fire. You should check with your local fire brigade on whether they are required. They are designed to contain a blaze for long enough in order for the occupants to be able to escape the property safely whilst also limiting the damage caused by the fire. They can be crucial barriers in a building.
This may change once the report comes out on the recent fire that took place on a block of flats and at the present time this is the situation.
It is important as a landlord, freeholder, managing agent or right to manage that you take everything into account. Most fires can be prevented by taking some basic and common sense precautions. There are specific guidelines for shared or rented properties.
It is important that a fire risk assessment is carried out every five years in relation to your property to ensure that you are secure.
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It is always important when considering whether you wish to become a buy to let…